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Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

Overview

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a program that helps you learn to calm your mind and body to help you cope with illness, pain, and stress.

MBSR teaches "mindfulness," which is a focus only on things happening in the present moment. Mindfulness is not a time to "zone out" or "space out." It's a time to purposefully pay attention and be aware of your surroundings, your emotions, your thoughts, and how your body feels. For example, you may sit quietly and notice your emotions. You might focus only on the sounds around you or how your food tastes and smells. When you are mindful, you do just one thing. And you pay close attention to that one thing.

Another important part of mindfulness is to not judge the present moment. This is because judgments may lead you to dwell on (or "get stuck" thinking about) unwanted situations, feelings, or thoughts. And dwelling on the past does not help you accept or solve problems. It just brings you down.

By training your mind to focus only on the present, you learn not to get lost in regrets from the past or worries about the future. Letting go of such thoughts may help you worry less and accept things as they are. Mindfulness teaches you to be in control of your mind so that your mind doesn't control you.

What it teaches you

MBSR helps you focus your mind on the present. A class in MBSR usually teaches you to:

  • Focus your attention on your entire body, starting with your feet and ending at your head. As you do this "body scan," you might note places where you're tense or have pain.
  • Focus on thoughts and distractions that run through your mind, but don't judge them. For example, you might notice that a thought about work comes to your mind. Rather than worry about your thought, simply note the thought ("work") and feeling ("worry") without dwelling on them. Then turn your attention back to the present moment. Keep trying.
  • Practice yoga breathing exercises, stretches, and poses to strengthen and relax muscles.

Practicing

Here are some ways you can practice MSBR.

  • When you go outside, take a few deep breaths.

    How does the air feel? Warm or cold? Try to accept that feeling and not resist it. What else do you notice around you?

  • Eat a meal in silence.

    Focus only on your food. Eat slowly, and savor each bite. What flavors do you taste?

  • Sit alone and think.

    Focus on your breathing. Gaze out the window, and listen to the sounds outdoors.

  • Take a slow walk by yourself.

    Count your steps while you breathe in and out.

  • Stop and be mindful for a few moments every few hours.

    You can do this at work, at home, or anywhere. Note how your body feels. Let your mind settle before you return to what you were doing.

How well it works

Studies show that MBSR can reduce stress and help people relax. Studies of people who have type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, chronic pain, and other problems show that MBSR helped some people cope better with symptoms and improved their quality of life.

Research also shows that MBSR helped people sleep better and feel less anxious. It also helped ease depression symptoms. In some people, MBSR also helped improve blood sugar and blood pressure.footnote 1, footnote 2, footnote 3

Taking part in MBSR has been linked to positive changes in the areas of the brain that affect how you pay attention, how you feel, and how you think.footnote 4

Related Information

References

Citations

  1. Merkes M (2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with chronic diseases. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 16(3): 200–210.
  2. Ledesma D, Kumano H (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cancer: A meta-analysis. Psycho-Oncology, 18(6): 571–579.
  3. Chiesa A, Serretti A (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(5): 593–600.
  4. Keng SL, et al. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6): 1041–1056.

Credits

Current as of: February 9, 2022

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
Patrice Burgess MD - Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Christine R. Maldonado PhD - Behavioral Health

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